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Magnetic Particle Inspection
Magnetic particle Testing is a method of locating and defining discontinuities in magnetic materials It is excellent for detecting surface defects in welds, including discontinuities that are too small to be seen with the naked eye, and those that are slightly subsurface. This method may be used to inspect plate edges prior to welding, in process inspection of each weld pass or layer, postweld evaluation and to inspect repairs
It is a good method for detecting surface cracks of all sizes in both the weld and adjacent base metal, subsurface cracks, incomplete fusion, undercut and inadequate penetration in the weld, as well as defects on the repaired edges of the base metal. Although magnetic particle testing should not be a substitute for radiography or ultrasonics for subsurface evaluations, it may present an advantage over their methods in detecting tight cracks and surface discontinuities.
Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic Inspection is a method of detecting discontinuities by directing a high-frequency sound beam through the base plate and weld on a predictable path. When the sound beam's path strikes an interruption in the material continuity, some of the sound is reflected back. The sound is collected by the instrument, amplified and displayed as a vertical trace on a video screen . Both surface and subsurface defects in metals can be detected, located and measured by ultrasonic inspection, including flaws too small to be detected by other methods.
Ultrasonic testing is often performed on steel and other metals and alloys, though it can also be used on concrete, wood and composites, albeit with less resolution. It is a form of non-destructive testing used in many industries including aerospace, automotive and other transportation sectors. Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements.
Visual inspection is often the most cost-effective method, but it must take place prior to, during and after welding. Many standards require its use before other methods, because there is no point in submitting an obviously bad weld to sophisticated inspection techniques. The ANSI/AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code-Steel, states, "Welds subject to nondestructive examination shall have been found acceptable by visual inspection." Visual inspection requires little equipment. Aside from good eyesight and sufficient light, all it takes is a pocket rule, a weld size gauge, a magnifying glass, and possibly a straight edge and square for checking straightness, alignment and perpendicularity. In visual testing we perform visual inspection and Ultrasonic Thickness gauging 1.In visual inspection we visually find the defects(cracks,corrosion,pitting ect.) .
Dynamic loading takes on many forms: impact, vibration, shock, fatigue, high strain rate to name a few. TCR is capable of performing many forms of dynamic tests on specimens, prototypes and assemblies.
Fasteners - Wedge, Axial, Proof Load and Torque
Fasteners of all sizes used in every application are critical to the integrity of structures and finished components. In addition to dimensional, chemical composition, and metallurgical properties, Mechanical Testing is of paramount importance in determining compliance with specifications and fitness for purposes.
The wedge tensile strength of a hex or square-head fastener, socket-head cap screw, or stud is the tensile load that the product is capable of sustaining when stressed with a wedge under the head. The purpose of this test is to obtain the tensile strength and to demonstrate the head quality and ductility of the product.